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Software Architecture in Practice

   
지은이 Paul Clements   |   출판사 Addison-Wesley Professional  |   발행일 2012년 09월 25일   |   언어 : English
 
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ISBN 0321815734 | 9780321815736
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    The award-winning and highly influential Software Architecture in Practice, Third Edition, has been substantially revised to reflect the latest developments in the field. In a real-world setting, the book once again introduces the concepts and best practices of software architecture—how a software system is structured and how that system’s elements are meant to interact. Distinct from the details of implementation, algorithm, and data representation, an architecture holds the key to achieving system quality, is a reusable asset that can be applied to subsequent systems, and is crucial to a software organization’s business strategy.



    The authors have structured this edition around the concept of architecture influence cycles. Each cycle shows how architecture influences, and is influenced by, a particular context in which architecture plays a critical role. Contexts include technical environment, the life cycle of a project, an organization’s business profile, and the architect’s professional practices. The authors also have greatly expanded their treatment of quality attributes, which remain central to their architecture philosophy—with an entire chapter devoted to each attribute—and broadened their treatment of architectural patterns.



    If you design, develop, or manage large software systems (or plan to do so), you will find this book to be a valuable resource for getting up to speed on the state of the art.



    Totally new material covers

    Contexts of software architecture: technical, project, business, and professional
    Architecture competence: what this means both for individuals and organizations
    The origins of business goals and how this affects architecture
    Architecturally significant requirements, and how to determine them
    Architecture in the life cycle, including generate-and-test as a design philosophy; architecture conformance during implementation; architecture and testing; and architecture and agile development
    Architecture and current technologies, such as the cloud, social networks, and end-user devices
    Preface xv

    Reader’s Guide xvii

    Acknowledgments xix



    Part One: Introduction 1



    Chapter 1: What Is Software Architecture? 3

    1.1 What Software Architecture Is and What It Isn’t 4

    1.2 Architectural Structures and Views 9

    1.3 Architectural Patterns 18

    1.4 What Makes a “Good” Architecture? 19

    1.5 Summary 21

    1.6 For Further Reading 22

    1.7 Discussion Questions 23



    Chapter 2: Why Is Software Architecture Important? 25

    2.1 Inhibiting or Enabling a System’s Quality Attributes 26

    2.2 Reasoning About and Managing Change 27

    2.3 Predicting System Qualities 28

    2.4 Enhancing Communication among Stakeholders 29

    2.5 Carrying Early Design Decisions 31

    2.6 Defining Constraints on an Implementation 32

    2.7 Influencing the Organizational Structure 33

    2.8 Enabling Evolutionary Prototyping 33

    2.9 Improving Cost and Schedule Estimates 34

    2.10 Supplying a Transferable, Reusable Model 35

    2.11 Allowing Incorporation of Independently Developed Components 35

    2.12 Restricting the Vocabulary of Design Alternatives 36

    2.13 Providing a Basis for Training 37

    2.14 Summary 37

    2.15 For Further Reading 38

    2.16 Discussion Questions 38



    Chapter 3: The Many Contexts of Software Architecture 39

    3.1 Architecture in a Technical Context 40

    3.2 Architecture in a Project Life-Cycle Context 44

    3.3 Architecture in a Business Context 49

    3.4 Architecture in a Professional Context 51

    3.5 Stakeholders 52

    3.6 How Is Architecture Influenced? 56

    3.7 What Do Architectures Influence? 57

    3.8 Summary 59

    3.9 For Further Reading 59

    3.10 Discussion Questions 60



    Part Two: Quality Attributes 61



    Chapter 4: Understanding Quality Attributes 63

    4.1 Architecture and Requirements 64

    4.2 Functionality 65

    4.3 Quality Attribute Considerations 65

    4.4 Specifying Quality Attribute Requirements 68

    4.5 Achieving Quality Attributes through Tactics 70

    4.6 Guiding Quality Design Decisions 72

    4.7 Summary 76

    4.8 For Further Reading 77

    4.9 Discussion Questions 77



    Chapter 5: Availability 79

    5.1 Availability General Scenario 85

    5.2 Tactics for Availability 87

    5.3 A Design Checklist for Availability 96

    5.4 Summary 98

    5.5 For Further Reading 99

    5.6 Discussion Questions 100



    Chapter 6: Interoperability 103

    6.1 Interoperability General Scenario 107

    6.2 Tactics for Interoperability 110

    6.3 A Design Checklist for Interoperability 114

    6.4 Summary 115

    6.5 For Further Reading 116

    6.6 Discussion Questions 116



    Chapter 7: Modifiability 117

    7.1 Modifiability General Scenario 119

    7.2 Tactics for Modifiability 121

    7.3 A Design Checklist for Modifiability 125

    7.4 Summary 128

    7.5 For Further Reading 128

    7.6 Discussion Questions 128



    Chapter 8: Performance 131

    8.1 Performance General Scenario 132

    8.2 Tactics for Performance 135

    8.3 A Design Checklist for Performance 142

    8.4 Summary 145

    8.5 For Further Reading 145

    8.6 Discussion Questions 145



    Chapter 9: Security 147

    9.1 Security General Scenario 148

    9.2 Tactics for Security 150

    9.3 A Design Checklist for Security 154

    9.4 Summary 156

    9.5 For Further Reading 157

    9.6 Discussion Questions 158



    Chapter 10: Testability 159

    10.1 Testability General Scenario 162

    10.2 Tactics for Testability 164

    10.3 A Design Checklist for Testability 169

    10.4 Summary 172

    10.5 For Further Reading 172

    10.6 Discussion Questions 173



    Chapter 11: Usability 175

    11.1 Usability General Scenario 176

    11.2 Tactics for Usability 177

    11.3 A Design Checklist for Usability 181

    11.4 Summary 183

    11.5 For Further Reading 183

    11.6 Discussion Questions 183



    Chapter 12: Other Quality Attributes 185

    12.1 Other Important Quality Attributes 185

    12.2 Other Categories of Quality Attributes 189

    12.3 Software Quality Attributes and System Quality Attributes 190

    12.4 Using Standard Lists of Quality Attributes–or Not 193

    12.5 Dealing with “X-ability”: Bringing a New Quality Attribute into the Fold 196

    12.6 For Further Reading 200

    12.7 Discussion Questions 201



    Chapter 13: Architectural Tactics and Patterns 203

    13.1 Architectural Patterns 204

    13.2 Overview of the Patterns Catalog 205

    13.3 Relationships between Tactics and Patterns 238

    13.4 Using Tactics Together 242

    13.5 Summary 247

    13.6 For Further Reading 248

    13.7 Discussion Questions 249



    Chapter 14: Quality Attribute Modeling and Analysis 251

    14.1 Modeling Architectures to Enable Quality Attribute Analysis 252

    14.2 Quality Attribute Checklists 260

    14.3 Thought Experiments and Back-of-the-Envelope Analysis 262

    14.4 Experiments, Simulations, and Prototypes 264

    14.5 Analysis at Different Stages of the Life Cycle 265

    14.6 Summary 266

    14.7 For Further Reading 267

    14.8 Discussion Questions 269



    Part Three: Architecture in the Life Cycle 271



    Chapter 15: Architecture in Agile Projects 275

    15.1 How Much Architecture? 277

    15.2 Agility and Architecture Methods 281

    15.3 A Brief Example of Agile Architecting 283

    15.4 Guidelines for the Agile Architect 286

    15.5 Summary 287

    15.6 For Further Reading 288

    15.7 Discussion Questions 289



    Chapter 16: Architecture and Requirements 291

    16.1 Gathering ASRs from Requirements Documents 292

    16.2 Gathering ASRs by Interviewing Stakeholders 294

    16.3 Gathering ASRs by Understanding the Business Goals 296

    16.4 Capturing ASRs in a Utility Tree 304

    16.5 Tying the Methods Together 308

    16.6 Summary 308

    16.7 For Further Reading 309

    16.8 Discussion Questions 309



    Chapter 17: Designing an Architecture 311

    17.1 Design Strategy 311

    17.2 The Attribute-Driven Design Method 316

    17.3 The Steps of ADD 318

    17.4 Summary 325

    17.5 For Further Reading 325

    17.6 Discussion Questions 326



    Chapter 18: Documenting Software Architectures 327

    18.1 Uses and Audiences for Architecture Documentation 328

    18.2 Notations for Architecture Documentation 329

    18.3 Views 331

    18.4 Choosing the Views 341

    18.5 Combining Views 343

    18.6 Building the Documentation Package 345

    18.7 Documenting Behavior 351

    18.8 Architecture Documentation and Quality Attributes 354

    18.9 Documenting Architectures That Change Faster Than You Can Document Them 355

    18.10 Documenting Architecture in an Agile Development Project 356

    18.11 Summary 359

    18.12 For Further Reading 360

    18.13 Discussion Questions 360



    Chapter 19: Architecture, Implementation, and Testing 363

    19.1 Architecture and Implementation 363

    19.2 Architecture and Testing 370

    19.3 Summary 376

    19.4 For Further Reading 376

    19.5 Discussion Questions 377



    Chapter 20: Architecture Reconstruction and Conformance 379

    20.1 Architecture Reconstruction Process 381

    20.2 Raw View Extraction 382

    20.3 Database Construction 386

    20.4 View Fusion 388

    20.5 Architecture Analysis: Finding Violations 389

    20.6 Guidelines 392

    20.7 Summary 393

    20.8 For Further Reading 394

    20.9 Discussion Questions 395



    Chapter 21: Architecture Evaluation 397

    21.1 Evaluation Factors 397

    21.2 The Architecture Tradeoff Analysis Method 400

    21.3 Lightweight Architecture Evaluation 415

    21.4 Summary 417

    21.5 For Further Reading 417

    21.6 Discussion Questions 418



    Chapter 22: Management and Governance 419

    22.1 Planning 420

    22.2 Organizing 422

    22.3 Implementing 427

    22.4 Measuring 429

    22.5 Governance 430

    22.6 Summary 432

    22.7 For Further Reading 432

    22.8 Discussion Questions 433



    Part Four: Architecture and Business 435



    Chapter 23: Economic Analysis of Architectures 437

    23.1 Decision-Making Context 438

    23.2 The Basis for the Economic Analyses 439

    23.3 Putting Theory into Practice: The CBAM 442

    23.4 Case Study: The NASA ECS Project 450

    23.5 Summary 457

    23.6 For Further Reading 458

    23.7 Discussion Questions 458



    Chapter 24: Architecture Competence 459

    24.1 Competence of Individuals: Duties, Skills, and Knowledge of Architects 460

    24.2 Competence of a Software Architecture Organization 467

    24.3 Summary 475

    24.4 For Further Reading 475

    24.5 Discussion Questions 477



    Chapter 25: Architecture and Software Product Lines 479

    25.1 An Example of Product Line Variability 482

    25.2 What Makes a Software Product Line Work? 483

    25.3 Product Line Scope 486

    25.4 The Quality Attribute of Variability 488

    25.5 The Role of a Product Line Architecture 488

    25.6 Variation Mechanisms 490

    25.7 Evaluating a Product Line Architecture 493

    25.8 Key Software Product Line Issues 494

    25.9 Summary 497

    25.10 For Further Reading 498

    25.11 Discussion Questions 498



    Part Five: The Brave New World 501



    Chapter 26: Architecture in the Cloud 503

    26.1 Basic Cloud Definitions 504

    26.2 Service Models and Deployment Options 505

    26.3 Economic Justification 506

    26.4 Base Mechanisms 509

    26.5 Sample Technologies 514

    26.6 Architecting in a Cloud Environment 520

    26.7 Summary 524

    26.8 For Further Reading 524

    26.9 Discussion Questions 525



    Chapter 27: Architectures for the Edge 527

    27.1 The Ecosystem of Edge-Dominant Systems 528

    27.2 Changes to the Software Development Life Cycle 530

    27.3 Implications for Architecture 531

    27.4 Implications of the Metropolis Model 533

    27.5 Summary 537

    27.6 For Further Reading 538

    27.7 Discussion Questions 538



    Chapter 28: Epilogue 541



    References 547

    About the Authors 561

    Index 563
    Len Bass is a Senior Principal Researcher at National ICT Australia Ltd (NICTA). He joined NICTA in 2011 after twenty-five years at the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) at Carnegie Mellon University. He is the coauthor of two award-winning books in software architecture, including Documenting Software Architectures: Views and Beyond, Second Edition (Addison-Wesley, 2011), as well as several other books and numerous papers in computer science and software engineering on a wide range of topics. Len has almost fifty years’ experience in software development and research in multiple domains, such as scientific analysis systems, embedded systems, and information systems.

    Paul Clements is the Vice President of Customer Success at BigLever Software, Inc., where he works to spread the adoption of systems and software product line engineering. Prior to this position, he was Senior Member of the Technical Staff at the SEI, where, for 17 years, he lead or co-lead projects in software product line engineering and software architecture documentation and analysis. Other books Paul has coauthored include Documenting Software Architectures: Views and Beyond, Second Edition (Addison-Wesley, 2011) and Evaluating Software Architectures: Methods and Case Studies, (Addison-Wesley, 2002), and Software Product Lines: Practices and Patterns (Addison-Wesley, 2002). In addition, he has also published dozens of papers in software engineering reflecting his long-standing interest in the design and specification of challenging software systems. Paul was a founding member of the IFIP WG2.10 Working Group on Software Architecture.

    Rick Kazman is a Professor at the University of Hawaii and a Visiting Scientist (and former Senior Member of the Technical Staff) at the SEI. He is a coauthor of Evaluating Software Architectures: Methods and Case Studies, (Addison-Wesley, 2002). Rick’s primary research interests are software architecture, design and analysis tools, software visualization, and software engineering economics. He is also interested in human-computer interaction and information retrieval. Rick was one of the creators of several highly influential methods and tools for architecture analysis, including the SAAM (Software Architecture Analysis Method), the ATAM (Architecture Tradeoff Analysis Method), the CBAM (Cost-Benefit Analysis Method), and the Dali architecture reverse engineering tool.
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